Yoga Darshan is one of the ancient Darshana. As Indian Philosophy system is termed as Darshana which literally means knowing or seeing. The word Darshana comes from the root ‘Drisyate‘ which means through which you can see. The philosophy word in Sanskrit is Darshana which means direct vision. The particular system through which you can see the reality is called Darshana.
★ Schools of Indian Philosophy \ Bhartiya Darshan
There are 9 types of darshanas which are categorised into two phases:-
- Orthodox Philosophy (Astika)
- Heterodox Philosophy (Nastika)
Orthodox Schools of Indian Philosophy –
Darshana which Believes in Vedas or god is Known as Orthodox school (Astika Darshan) of indian philosophy. Yoga darshan is one of them.
There are 6 types of orthodox darshana i.e. :-
- – Nayaya Darshan
- – Vaishesik Darshan
- – Samkhya Darshan
- – Yoga Darshan
- – Mimansha Darshan
- – Vedanta Darshan
Non-orthodox \ Heterodox schools of Indian Philosophy –
Darshan which Does not believes in God or vedas is known as Heterodox school of indian philosophy (Nastika Darshana).
There are three types of Non-Orthodox | Heterodox Darshan i.e.
- – Buddhism
- – Jainism
- – Charaka
★ Overview of Patanjali Yoga Darshan :-
Patanjali is the traditional founder of the Yoga Darshanam. Word Yoga is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Yuj‘ which means union, to connect Or to integrate.
Yoga means the spiritual effort to attain perfection through the control over mind, body and senses and through the right discrimination between the Prakriti and Purusha.
Yoga is intimately allied with Samkhya but Bhagavad Geeta calls them one.
Drishyate Anen Eti Darshanam.~ To see or to know the reality or the truth.
Important Element of Yoga Darshan :-
Chitta is the most important element in the psychology of yoga.
It is the first modification of Prakriti, in which there is predominant of Nature of Three Gunas (TriGuna :- Sattva, Rajas, Tamas ).
What is the meaning of Chitta ?
Chitta means three internal organs of Sankhya i.e.
- – Mind
- – Intellect
- – Ego sense
What are the stages of Chitta ?
Chitta has 5 stages which are known as Chitta Bhumi.
- i) Restless
- ii) Stupefied
- iii) Distracted
- iv) One pointed
- v) Arrested
Pramana in Yoga Darshan \ three fundamental pramana :-
- i) Pratyaksha
- ii) Anumana
- iii) Agama
Relation between Sankhya and Yoga Darshan ?
Yoga mostly accepts the metaphysics of Samkhya. It shows the practical path by which one may attain the Viveka jnana, which alone leads to liberation.
It also accepts the 25 metaphysical principals. Yoga believes in God so it is known as Seshwara Samkhya.
★ How many Chapters in Patanjali Yoga Sutra
Patanjali systemised yoga in the form of sutras
Patanjali Yoga Sutra consists of 195 sutras which are systemised into 4 chapters or Pada in :-
1) Samadhi Pada
2) Sadhana Pada
3) Vibhuti Pada
4) Kaivalya Pada
Samadhi Pada in yoga sutra :-
This chapter deals with the Nature of Samadhi. It refers to an as blissful state where the yogis are observed into one. samadhi is the main technique in which yogis learn to dip into the depths of the mind to achieve kaivalya.
Definition of yoga according to patanjali yoga sutra:-
i) “yogaś-Chitta – vr̥tti-nirodhaḥ”To control our thoughts and thought waves is yoga.
- ‘Chitta‘ means ‘mind’,
- ‘Vritti‘ means ‘thought waves’,
- ‘Niroadh’ means ‘to cut off’.
This means we have to the niroadh(cut off) of vrittis(thought waves) which occurs in our Chitta(mind), this is yoga.
ii) “abhyāsa-vairāgya-ābhyāṁ tan-nirodhaḥ”– Abhyasa means action which is done without interruption. To gain the spiritual control over the mind. It also means the efforts to attain or gain the state of physical, mental and spiritual efforts.
Vairagya means letting go of things like fear, ego, revenge, false sense, etc.
iii) “Isvara-pranidhanat-VA “– It means the absolute surrendering and devotional attitude towards the Lord.
Ishwara pranidhana is nothing but it is a kind of bhakti-yoga. It is done with nishkama bhaw and is a kind of selfless bhakti.
iv) “kleśa karma vipāka-āśayaiḥ-aparāmr̥ṣṭaḥ puruṣa-viśeṣa īśvaraḥ”– Ishwara is a special kind of Purusha who is untouched by all the kleshas and it never comes in contact with Prakriti and he is free and untouched by all the kleshas
v) “Tasya vācakaḥ praṇavaḥ”– Pranava means AUM, and through the recitation of AUM we can indicate ishwara, this sutra indicates Ishvara pranidhana, whenever we indicate or recognize god we chant AUM.
Sadhana Pada in yoga sutra :-
Sadhana is a Sanskrit word for practice or discipline. Here, the author outlines the two form of yoga i.e.
i) Kriya Yoga
ii) Ashtanga Yoga
Kriya Yoga is the shortcut method to attain liberation or samadhi.
“tapaḥ svādhyāy-eśvarapraṇidhānāni kriyā-yogaḥ”– tapaḥ – It means the efforts which we take to complete our work.
svādhyāy – It means Self-study. To know the reality of ownself.
eśvarapraṇidhānāni – It means to surrender god, To devote yourself completely towards god.
The main motto of kriya yoga is to live a happy life. It defines our personality, character, image, workings, habits, etc.
Which are the Ashtanga Yoga in Yoga Darshana :-
It describes the 8 limbs of ashtanga yoga which is also known as Raja Yoga. In terms of Patanjali Yoga Sutra, the first 5 limbs are so-called Bahiranga Yoga and the last 3 limbs are known as Antranga Yoga.
i) Yama – It means internal discipline.
“ahiṁsā-satya-asteya brahmacharya-aparigrahāḥ yamāḥ”
It is classified into 5 parts i.e.
ii) Niyama – It means external discipline.
“śauca saṁtoṣa tapaḥ svādhyāy-eśvarapraṇidhānāni niyamāḥ”
It is classified into 5 parts:-
- Ishvara Pranidhana
iii) Asana or Posture defination according to yoga sutra
“sthira-sukham-āsanam”– A complete stable and steady posture.
iv) Pranayama according to yoga sutra
” Tasmin Sati śvāsa-praśvāsyor-gati-vicchedaḥ prāṇāyāmaḥ”– It means breath control and to gain stability over the regulation of breath.
v) Prathayara defination in yoga sutra
“svaviṣaya-asaṁprayoge cittasya svarūpānukāra-iv-endriyāṇāṁ pratyāhāraḥ”– It means the withdrawal of senses from the eternal world or objects.
vi) Dharana sutra in yoga sutra
” deśa-bandhaḥ cittasya dhāraṇā “– The complete concentration over the mind(Chitta). If we have to meditate 12 sec and beyond that, it is known as Dharana.
vii) Dhyana meaning in yog sutra
” Tatra pratyaya-ikatānatā dhyānam “– The complete focus over the mind without and disturbance. If we meditate for 3 minutes 30 seconds, so we’ll move towards the state of dhyana.
viii) Samadhi in yoga darshana
” tadeva-artha-mātra-nirbhāsaṁ svarūpa-śūnyam-iva-samādhiḥ”– It is the final state where the yogis are observed into one, the ultimate state of blissfulness i.e. liberation.
There are two types of Samadhi :-
- * Sabija Samadhi
- * Nirbija Samadhi
Vibhuti Pada :-
Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for power and menofestication. Practice and the abhyasa of yoga will take us towards Vibuti.
In this, the Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi are considered as Samyamane.
Kaivalya Pada :-
Kaivalya means ‘isolation’ but it is used in the sutra for liberation which is the goal of yoga. It describes the technique of liberation and the reality of the transcendental ego.
Kaivalya is the final stage of yoga where the person gets completely detached with his mind and they attain the intense blissful state.
REGARDS :- RAVITABH SAHU